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Tuesday, April 21, 2020 | History

2 edition of Development of a ground-based optical method for measuring atmospheric turbulence aloft found in the catalog.

Development of a ground-based optical method for measuring atmospheric turbulence aloft

G. R Ochs

Development of a ground-based optical method for measuring atmospheric turbulence aloft

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  • 7 Currently reading

Published by Environmental Research Laboratories, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Print. Off. in Boulder, Colo, Washington .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Atmospheric turbulence -- Measurement,
  • Remote sensing,
  • Meteorological optics

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographical references (p. 44-45)

    Statementby G.R. Ochs ... [et al.]
    SeriesNOAA technical report ; ERL 297-WPL 30, NOAA technical report ERL -- 297, NOAA technical report ERL -- 30
    ContributionsEnvironmental Research Laboratories (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    Pagination45 p. :
    Number of Pages45
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15474589M

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion. It is used in astronomical telescopes and laser communication systems to remove the effects of atmospheric distortion, in microscopy, optical fabrication and in retinal imaging systems. where r is the radial coordinate, θ is the azimuthal angle and l is the orbital angular momentum quantum number. For simplicity we will omit the explicit dependence of the wave function on the propagation distance consider turbulence in the so-called weak regime, where the random fluctuations of the index of refraction cause only phase aberrations in the transverse profile Cited by: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to meteorology. Meteorology – interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere which explains and forecasts weather events. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport, agriculture and construction. turbulence: (tŭr'byū-lĕnts), In cardiology, erratic motion. [L. turbulentus, stirred up, fr. turbo, to disturb].


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Development of a ground-based optical method for measuring atmospheric turbulence aloft by G. R Ochs Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Development of a ground-based optical method for measuring atmospheric turbulence aloft. [G R Ochs; S F Clifford; R S Lawrence; Dingyi Wang; United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,; Environmental Research Laboratories (U.S.),].

by the atmospheric turbulence in addition to the limit imposed by the optical instrument. The large diameter of Send o print requests to: E. Masciadri new telescopes increases the light collected by the instru-ment but it cannot help to get a better spatial resolution in the image.

The atmospheric turbulence modi es Cited by: MODELING METHOD In the method of modeling atmospheric optical turbulence, the meteorological parameters are acquired with medium-scale meteorological models, and the optical turbulence parameters are calculated from the meteorological : Wang Hong-shuai, Yao Yong-qiang, Qian Xuan, Liu Li-yong, Wang Yi-ping, Li Jun-rong.

We report the development of an atmospheric turbulence simulator consisting of two point sources, a commercially available deformable mirror with a 12×12 actuator array, and two random phase plates. An optical technique is described that uses coherent and incoherent optical scintillation to measure the path-averaged value of the turbulence inner scale.

The technique is verified by comparison with an in situ measurement, and inner scale values obtained m. 2 and the beam wander and beam spread effects. Section 3 presents the developed device, the optical triangulation method and how it uses the beam wander and beam spread effects to measure atmos- pheric turbulence.

Section 4 presents the experimental setup by: 1. We also present an extension of an existing model with two different practical applications that, as is shown experimentally, can be a good predictor of Cn2 for optical atmospheric paths over midland coastal zones.

Turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere is a major obstacle to the detection of planets with coronographic and interferometric methods from the ground. It limits the contrast achievable with high-resolution imaging and the precision of astrometric measurements. Atmospheric turbulence also determines manyFile Size: KB.

The behavior of spatial correlation singularities suggests a possible method for measuring atmospheric turbulence strength with a vortex beam. The refractive index structure constant C n 2 can be obtained by measuring the radius of a ring dislocation of a vortex beam which has passed through atmospheric by: measuring atmospheric turbulence is vital to efficient har-nessing of wind energy and to measuring the structural in-tegrity of a wind turbine.

Traditionally, meteorological mast (met-mast) anemometry has been used; in this method, either cup or sonic anemometers are mounted on slender booms at one or several heights to measure turbulence over Cited by: For determination of optical strength of turbulence, it is a linear integral equation that is developed.

However, for determination of remote wind velocity, a nonlinear integral equation is obtained. Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence. The current gold-standard method for modeling atmospheric turbulence effects is wavefront propagation. In general, the atmosphere is modeled by a series of phase screens with phase power spectral densities selected according to the atmospheric conditions being modeled, and then the wavefront radiated from the object is propagated through Cited by: 3.

far-field region in the free space [23]. Although there are many investigations on the propagation properties of various coherent. and partially coherent laser beams in a turbulent atmosphere [], the effect of atmospheric. turbulence on the propagation of the optical vortex is still few by:   where C 2 n is called the refractive index structure coefficient, which can be considered a measure of the strength of turbulence.

An extensive review of this formulation can be found in Roddier (). Since the atmospheric refractive index n is a function of the air temperature T and concentration of water vapor q, the fluctuation of the refractive index is a function of the temperature Cited by: This thesis discusses methods to measure several atmospheric parameters related to turbulence.

Techniques used by two different scintillometers based on weak turbulence theory are discussed along with a method to estimate the inner scale developed by Hill.

The theory and minimization algorithm used to infer the atmospheric parameters are by: 5. Two methods of measuring atmospheric turbulence as it affects free space optical communications are presented. Each method yields a value of the structure constant of refractive index fluctuations, C n 2.A scintillometer is used as the basis or 'truth' for measurements taken by the first method by fitting data from the other instrument to the simultaneous scintillometer by: The optical turbulence is responsible for the distortion of the images taken by ground-based telescopes.

In this study the mesoscale non-hydrostatic model Meso-NH is used to characterize the optical turbu-lence at Mt Graham International Observatory (AZ, USA). The simu-lations are compared to measurements of the vertical distribution ofFile Size: 1MB. This text was written to provide engineers and students of astronomy an understanding of optical science—the study of the generation, propagation, control, and measurement of optical radiation—as it applies to telescopes and instruments for astronomical research in the areas of astrophysics, astrometry, exoplanet characterization, and planetary science.

The book discusses digital Fourier transforms (FT), FT-based operations, multiple methods of wave-optics simulations, sampling requirements, and simulations in atmospheric turbulence. This book will benefit optical scientists and engineers at all levels as a guide for FT-based data analysis, imaging system analysis, and wave-optics by: The paper focuses on the development of the method to estimate the mean characteristics of the atmospheric turbulence.

Using an approach based on the shape of the energy spectrum of atmospheric turbulence over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the vertical profiles of optical turbulence are calculated. The temporal variability of the vertical profiles of turbulence under Cited by: 1.

A method for inner scale estimation that is proposed in [12] requires usage of two parallel beams [12, 15]. Studies mentioned give estimates of the inner scale value about 1 mm or about 10 mm in the atmosphere.

Both characteristic scales are important for the description of turbulence and understanding of its optical effects. ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE AND OPTICAL PROPAGATION l l 0 L 0 FigureŸ.Õ: Illustration of the emergence of turbulence in the atmosphere. Large-scalewindžows ofsizeL.

Optical Turbulence in High Angular Resolution Techniques in Astronomy (J M Beckers) Optical Turbulence Profiles at CTIO from a Element Lunar Scintillometer (P Hickson et al.) High Resolution SLODAR Measurements on Mauna Kea (T Butterley et al.) How We Can Understand the Antarctic Atmospheric.

(J W V Storey et al.). Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft—above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers—have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL).Cited by: It is the measurement of interfero.

D) It is the measurement of atmospheric interference with light entering a telescope to reduce the effects of turbulence. E) It is the measurement of the different amounts of light at different wavelengths. To this end, a cross-calibration campaign was conducted on two of the sites comparing both the wind speeds and the optical turbulence measurements of the different units.

The specific set-up conditions and the low atmospheric pressure require us to make a compromise between the amount of data available for statistics and the quality of the by: 6. Development of a ground-based optical method for measuring atmospheric G. Ochs Read. Accessible book, Measurement, Protected DAISY, Remote sensing, Atmospheric turbulence, Atmospheric physics, Radio wave propagation, Aerosols, Atmospheric ozone.

Abstract. The aim of this Chapter is to provide a gentle introduction to the optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on astronomical images.

A number of more detailed descriptions should be read in conjunction with this Chapter and those by Roddier[13][14], Fried[5], and Roggemann and Welsh[16] are particularly : J. Dainty. The development of an optical radar system (POTSALV) by this labora- tory necessitates a knowledge of the errorein position measurement caused by the apparent angular deviation of a A laser beam by atmospheric turbulence.

Hz is of primary concern because fluctuations in this range will affect the design. Based on his over forty years of research and teaching, John C.

Wyngaard's textbook is an excellent up-to-date introduction to turbulence in the atmosphere and in engineering flows for advanced students, and a reference work for researchers in the atmospheric sciences.

Part I introduces the concepts and equations of by: Atmospheric Turbulence. The wavefront from an astronomical source can be considered flat at the top of the atmosphere.

As it propagates to the ground it gets corrupted by the optical turbulence which forms a limit to the precision of measurements from ground based telescopes.

basis for remote measurement of the optical strength of atmospheric turbulence--a quantity of great interest to those of us concerned with optical propagation in the atmosphere, but have also been able to lay the conceptual and analytic ground-work for remote measurement of wind velocities aloft -- File Size: KB.

The Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Simulated Starlight in a Low-Pressure Telescope Environment ReneePark We are primarily interested in the optical methods of detection to provide direct im- measuring the distances between the fiducials; the absolute lengths between the fiducials.

Atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, which is known as atmospheric scintillation, severely degrading the link performance [2]. Improved BDF relaying scheme using time diversity over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels.

The image size and quality depends on a statistical measure of the spatial frequency of the turbulence called the coherence length, or r 0, typically about 10 cm at a good site. Hence, even at a good site, the resolution of a big telescope, 4 or 8 m in diameter, will be similar to that of a cm-diameter telescope; the image will never get any.

A so-called six-beam method is proposed to mea-sure atmospheric turbulence using a ground-based wind li-dar. This method requires measurement of the radial velocity variances at five equally spaced azimuth angles on the base of a scanning cone and one measurement at the centre of the scanning circle, a vertical beam at the same height.

Dr. Mikhail Vorontsov, Ph. D from the University of Dayton Electro-Optics Program presents a lecture titled "How Atmospheric Turbulence can be used to improve Optical Systems Performance" at the.

Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence by Means of Light, Sound, and Radio Waves Andreas Muschinski Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst Observing the Turbulent Atmosphere: Sampling Strategies, TechSampling Strategies, Technologies, and Applicationsnologies, and Applications NCAR, Boulder, CO, the Kolmogorov model of turbulence to define the structure function in terms of only a single parameter, the atmospheric coherence length, or the Fried parameter r o.

D φ a(r) = r r o 5 3 (5) The atmospheric coherence length is an extremely useful parameter when considering atmospheric tur-bulence. A technique that deforms the shape of a mirror's surface under computer control while the image is being exposed in order to undo the effects of atmospheric turbulence Radio telescopes Telescopes capable of detecting cosmic radio waves that has a large, horseshoe shaped mount supporting a huge, curved metal dish that serves as the collecting area.

An imaging system for measuring the effects of atmospheric turbulence and obscuration on FSO links will be presented. Weak and intermediate turbulence results will be shown for an meter link at the University of by: feasible. Atmospheric turbulence, aerosols, and molecular absorption all affect the propagation of optical waves in the atmosphere.

Since atmospheric turbulence is the major source of errors on free space optical communication links, this dissertation investigates two techniques to reduce the impact of atmospheric turbulence on such links.Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding Mehul Malik,1,∗ Malcolm O’Sullivan,1 Brandon Rodenburg,1 Mohammad Mirhosseini,1 Jonathan Leach,2 Martin P.

J. Lavery,3 Miles J. Padgett,3 and Robert W. Boyd1,2 1The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York USA 2Department of Physics, University .